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Ansari, L;Monaghan, S;McEvoy, N;Coileain, CO;Cullen, CP;Lin, J;Siris, R;Stimpel-Lindner, T;Burke, KF;Mirabelli, G;Duffy, R;Caruso, E;Nagle, RE;Duesberg, GS;Hurley, PK;Gity, F
Npj 2d Materials And Applications
Quantum confinement-induced semimetal-to-semiconductor evolution in large-area ultra-thin PtSe2 films grown at 400 degrees C
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In this work, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of quantum confinement in layered platinum diselenide (PtSe2) films as a function of film thickness. Our electrical measurements, in combination with density functional theory calculations, show distinct layer-dependent semimetal-to-semiconductor evolution in PtSe2 films, and highlight the importance of including van der Waals interactions, Green's function calibration, and screened Coulomb interactions in the determination of the thickness-dependent PtSe2 energy gap. Large-area PtSe2 films of varying thickness (25-65 nm) were formed at 400 degrees C by thermally assisted conversion of ultra-thin platinum films on Si/SiO2 substrates. The PtSe2 films exhibit p-type semiconducting behavior with hole mobility values up to 13 cm(2)/V.s. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors have been fabricated using the grown PtSe2 films and a gate field-controlled switching performance with an I-O(N)/I(OFF )ratio of >230 has been measured at room temperature for a 2.5-3 nm PtSe2 film, while the ratio drops to <2 for 5-6.5 nm-thick PtSe2 films, consistent with a semiconducting-to-semimetallic transition with increasing PtSe2 film thickness. These experimental observations indicate that the low-temperature growth of semimetallic or semiconducting PtSe2 could be integrated into the back-end-of-line of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process.
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