Ligand of NUMB Protein X1 and X2 (LNX1 and LNX2) are E3 ubiquitin ligases, named for their ability to interact with and promote the degradation of the cell fate determinant protein NUMB. On this basis they are thought to play a role in modulating NUMB/NOTCH signalling during processes such as cortical neurogenesis. However, LNX1/2 proteins can bind, via their four PDZ ( P SD95, D LGA, Z O-1) domains, to an extraordinarily large number of other proteins besides NUMB. Many of these interactions suggest additional roles for LNX1/2 proteins in the nervous system in areas such as synapse formation, neurotransmission and regulating neuroglial function. Twenty years on from their initial discovery, I discuss here the putative neuronal functions of LNX1/2 proteins in light of the anxiety-related phenotype of double knockout mice lacking LNX1 and LNX2 in the central nervous system (CNS). I also review what is known about non-neuronal roles of LNX1/2 proteins, including their roles in embryonic patterning and pancreas development in zebrafish and their possible involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC), osteoclast differentiation and immune function in mammals. The emerging picture places LNX1/2 proteins as potential regulators of multiple cellular signalling processes, but in many cases the physiological significance of such roles remains only partly validated and needs to be considered in the context of the tight control of LNX1/2 protein levels in vivo .