© 2019, The Author(s). Metabolic and neuroactive metabolite production represents one of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota can impact health. One such metabolite, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), can modulate glucose homeostasis and alter behavioural patterns in the host. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC6108 has the potential to increase levels of circulating insulin in healthy rats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of endogenous microbial GABA production in improving metabolic and behavioural outcomes in a mouse model of metabolic dysfunction. Diet-induced obese and metabolically dysfunctional mice received one of two GABA-producing strains, L. brevis DPC6108 or L. brevis DSM32386, daily for 12 weeks. After 8 and 10 weeks of intervention, the behavioural and metabolic profiles of the mice were respectively assessed. Intervention with both L. brevis strains attenuated several abnormalities associated with metabolic dysfunction, causing a reduction in the accumulation of mesenteric adipose tissue, increased insulin secretion following glucose challenge, improved plasma cholesterol clearance and reduced despair-like behaviour and basal corticosterone production during the forced swim test. Taken together, this exploratory dataset indicates that intervention with GABA-producing lactobacilli has the potential to improve metabolic and depressive- like behavioural abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome in mice.