Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Mathur H.;Field D.;Rea M.;Cotter P.;Hill C.;Ross R.
Npj Biofilms And Microbiomes
Fighting biofilms with lantibiotics and other groups of bacteriocins
Scopus: 42 ()
Optional Fields
2018 The Author(s). Biofilms are sessile communities of bacteria typically embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Bacterial cells embedded in biofilms are inherently recalcitrant to antimicrobials, compared to cells existing in a planktonic state, and are notoriously difficult to eradicate once formed. Avenues to tackle biofilms thus far have largely focussed on attempting to disrupt the initial stages of biofilm formation, including adhesion and maturation of the biofilm. Such an approach is advantageous as the concentrations required to inhibit formation of biofilms are generally much lower than removing a fully established biofilm. The crisis of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings worldwide has been further exacerbated by the ability of certain pathogenic bacteria to form biofilms. Perhaps the most notorious biofilm formers described from a clinical viewpoint have been methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus mutans, the latter of which is found in oral biofilms. Due to the dearth of novel antibiotics in recent decades, compounded by the increasing rate of emergence of resistance amongst pathogens with a propensity for biofilm formation, solutions are urgently required to mitigate these crises. Bacteriocins are a class of antimicrobial peptides, which are ribosomally synthesised and often are more potent than their antibiotic counterparts. Here, we review a selection of studies conducted with bacteriocins with the ultimate objective of inhibiting biofilms. Overall, a deeper understanding of the precise means by which a biofilm forms on a substrate as well as insights into the mechanisms by which bacteriocins inhibit biofilms is warranted.
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