Bacteriocins are natural antimicrobials that have been consumed via fermented foods for millennia and have been the focus of renewed efforts to identify novel bacteriocins, and their producing microorganisms, for use as food biopreservatives and other applications. Bioengineering bacteriocins or combining bacteriocins with multiple modes of action (hurdle approach) can enhance their preservative effect and reduces the incidence of antimicrobial resistance. In addition to their role as food biopreservatives, bacteriocins are gaining credibility as health modulators, due to their ability to regulate the gut microbiota, which is strongly associated with human wellbeing. Indeed the strengthening link between the gut microbiota and obesity make bacteriocins ideal alternatives to Animal Growth Promoters (AGP) in animal feed also. Here we review recent advances in bacteriocin research that will contribute to the development of functional foods and feeds as a consequence of roles in food biopreservation and human/animal health.