© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Adolescence is a critical developmental period that is characterised by growth spurts and specific neurobiological, neuroimmune and behavioural changes. In tandem the gut microbiota, which is a key player in the regulation of health and disease, is shaped during this time period. Diet is one of the most important regulators of microbiota composition. Thus, we hypothesised that dietary disturbances of the microbiota during this critical time window result in long-lasting changes in immunity, brain and behaviour. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to either high fat diet or cafeteria diet during the adolescent period from postnatal day 28 to 49 and were tested for anxiety-related and social behaviour in adulthood. Our results show long-lasting effects of dietary interventions during the adolescent period on microbiota composition and the expression of genes related to neuroinflammation or neurotransmission. Interestingly, changes in myelination-related gene expression in the prefrontal cortex following high fat diet exposure were also observed. However, these effects did not translate into overt behavioural changes in adulthood. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of diet-microbiota interactions during the adolescent period in shaping specific outputs of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in later life.