The microbiota-gut-brain axis encompasses a bidirectional mode of communication between the microorganisms residing in our gut, and our brain function and behavior. The composition of the gut microbiota is subject to diurnal variation and is entrained by host circadian rhythms. In turn, a diverse microbiota is essential for optimal regulation of host circadian pathways. Disruption of the cyclical nature of this microbe-host interaction profoundly influences disease pathology and severity. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on this bidirectional relationship. Indeed, the past few years have revealed promising data regarding the relationship between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and circadian rhythms and how they act in concert to influence disease, but further research needs to be done to examine how they coalesce to modulate severity of, and risk for, certain diseases. Moreover, there is a need for a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the close relationship between circadian-microbiome-brain interactions.