Scope There is an increased interest in developing biomarkers of food intake to address some of the limitations associated with self-reported data. The objective is to identify biomarkers of apple intake, examine dose-response relationships, and agreement with self-reported data.Methods and results Metabolomic data from three studies are examined: an acute intervention, a short-term intervention, and a free-living cohort study. Fasting and postprandial urine samples are collected for analysis by H-1-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Calibration curves are developed to determine apple intake and classify individuals into categories of intake. Multivariate analysis of data reveals that levels of multiple metabolites increase significantly post-apple consumption, compared to the control food-broccoli. In the dose-response study, urinary xylose, epicatechin sulfate, and 2,6-dimethyl-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran increase as apple intake increases. Urinary xylose concentrations in a free-living cohort perform poorly at an individual level but are capable of ranking individuals in categories of intake.Conclusion Urinary xylose exhibits a dose-response relationship with apple intake and performs well as a ranking biomarker in the population study. Other potential biomarkers are identified and future work will combine these with xylose in a biomarker panel which may allow for a more objective determination of individual intake.