© 2020 American Chemical Society. Thermal annealing of top-down fabricated GaN nanocolumns (NCs) was investigated over a wide range of temperatures for ammonia-rich atmospheres of both nitrogen and hydrogen. It was found that in contrast to the annealing of planar GaN layers, where surface morphology change is governed purely by material decomposition, reshaping of GaN NCs is strongly affected by competition between different crystallographic facets, which in turn depends on ambient atmosphere and temperature. A qualitative mechanism explaining the observed behavior has been proposed. On the basis of the analysis of these annealing results, growth conditions suitable for either predominantly lateral expansion of the NCs turning their sidewalls into six well-defined vertical m-plane facets, or, vice versa, their infilling from the base regions between the NCs were determined. GaN NC arrays of increased filling factors as compared to the as top-down fabricated ones have been demonstrated using these optimized growth conditions.