Phosphorothioates, phosphonothioates, phosphinothioates and phosphonodithioates are organophosphorus compounds with widespread application, especially in the fields of agrochemicals, medicinal chemistry and materials chemistry. Herein, we review modern methods for the construction of the phosphorus-sulfur bonds in these important functional groups. This review is organised on the basis of the different synthetic approaches, with the advantages and disadvantages of each also examined. (Figure presented.).