The symbiosis between the gut microbiota and the host has been identified as an integral part of normal human physiology and physiological development. Research in germ-free or gnotobiotic animals has demonstrated the importance of this symbiosis in immune, vascular, hepatic, respiratory and metabolic systems. Disruption of the microbiota can also contribute to disease, and the microbiota has been implicated in numerous intestinal and extra-intestinal pathologies including colorectal cancer. Interactions between host and microbiota can occur either directly or indirectly, via microbial-derived metabolites. In this chapter, we focus on two major products of microbial metabolism, short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, and their role in colorectal cancer. Short-chain fatty acids are the products of microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates and confer protection against cancer risk, while bile acids are compounds which are endogenous to the host, but undergo microbial modification in the large intestine leading to alterations in their bioactivity. Lastly, we discuss the ability of microbial modulation to mediate cancer risk and the potential to harness this ability as a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in colorectal cancer.