Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Mazzocchi M;Collins LM;Sullivan AM;O'Keeffe GW;
Neuronal Signaling
The class II histone deacetylases as therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease.
Optional Fields
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by specific motor impairments. The neuropathological hallmarks of PD include progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and loss of their axonal projections to the striatum. Additionally, there is progressive accumulation and spread of intracellular aggregates of a-synuclein. Although dopamine-replacement pharmacotherapy can treat PD symptoms in the short-term, there is a critical need for the development of disease-modifying therapies based on an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. One such mechanism is histone acetylation, which is a common epigenetic modification that alters gene transcription. A number of studies have described alterations in histone acetylation in the brains of PD patients. Moreover, a-synuclein accumulation has been linked to alterations in histone acetylation and pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating histone acetylation are under investigation as novel approaches to disease modification in PD. Currently, such strategies are focused predominantly on pan-inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Inhibition of specific individual HDAC enzymes is a more targeted strategy that may allow for future clinical translation. However, the most appropriate class of HDACs that should be targeted for neuroprotection in PD is still unclear. Recent work has shed new light on the role of class-II HDACs in dopaminergic degeneration. For this reason, here we describe the regulation of histone acetylation, outline the evidence for alterations in histone acetylation in the PD brain, and focus on the roles of class II HDACs and the potential of class-II HDAC inhibition as a therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in PD.
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