Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Curley, R.; Banta, R. A.; Garvey, S.; Holmes, J. D.; Flynn, E. J.
Applied Nanoscience (Switzerland)
Spherical silica particle production by combined biomimetic-Stber synthesis using renewable sodium caseinate without petrochemical agents
Optional Fields
Biomineralisation Biopolymers Spherical silica Stber process
Spherical silica particles are typically made via Stber processes. However, these processes are environmentally unsustainable. Here, we report a process to synthesise spherical silica particles in a more sustainable way using sodium caseinate. Initial experiments showed that sodium caseinate can replace the typical industrial structural directing agents used to produce spherical particles. Particles of 124nm in size were produced with 200mg L sodium caseinate and 81 L sodium silicate, and particles with a bimodal size distribution (258 and 1432nm) were produced with 400mg L sodium caseinate and 81 L sodium silicate. Particles with multimodal size distributions between 3631588nm and 342860nm where produced with 200mg L sodium caseinate and 162 L sodium silicate and 200mg L sodium caseinate and 810 L sodium silicate, respectively. Higher concentrations of sodium caseinate and low concentrations of sodium silicate promoted Ostwald ripening. Low concentrations of sodium caseinate and high concentrations of sodium silicate promoted coalescence. Subsequent optimisation of the monodispersity using a statistical design of experiments yielded size-monodisperse silica particles with a narrower size distribution between 172 and 340nm using sodium caseinate, calcium chloride, sodium silicate, and acetate buffer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analyses were used to determine and quantify the relationship between reagent concentrations and particle size. A regression equation was calculated, which predicts particle size based on reagent concentration. Predicted particle sizes (189.6, 197.1, 204.6, and 212.1nm) and experimentally determined particle sizes (200, 190, 184, and 196nm) showed good agreement. The possibility of producing spherical silica particles sustainably is shown. -1 -1 -1 -1
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