The vibration syndrome is an often unrecognized occupational neurovascular disease with a prevalence of more than 70 \% in certain high-risk occupations. Early recognition is crucial because continued exposure to vibration can lead to irreversible ischemic injury and loss of digits. Digital ischemia due to the vibration syndrome may be due to a vasospastic phenomenon, an organic microangiopathy or arterial thrombosis. Demyelinating neuropathy and carpel tunnel syndrome are often associated. Many pathophysiological mechanisms are implicated: hyperactivity of the central sympathetic nervous system, release of plasma endothelin-1 and loss of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide vasoregulation. Investigation tests, treatment and the European Community Directive for the protection of workers are also presented.