We present a 34-year-old patient with digital necrosis due to thromboangiitis obliterans. He was successfully treated with iloprost, a prostaglandin analogue. Duplex ultrasonography was performed during the perfusion of iloprost to optimize the doses and the treatment duration. A complete revascularization was observed after 10 days. Iloprost perfusions were stopped, and a slow regression of the necroses was observed in the subsequent days. With the use of duplex ultrasonography, unnecessary high doses of iloprost and long periods of treatment can be avoided reducing side effects and treatment costs. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.