Newborn care has witnessed significant improvements in survival, but ongoing concerns persist about neurodevelopmental outcome. Protecting the newborn brain is the focus of neurocritical care in the intensive care unit. Brain-focused care places emphasis on clinical practices supporting neurodevelopment in conjunction with early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of brain injury. Technology now facilitates continuous cot-side monitoring of brain function. Neuromonitoring techniques in neonatal intensive care units include the use of electroencephalography (EEG) or amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy. This article aims to provide an introduction to EEG, which is appropriate for neonatal healthcare professionals.