Other Publication Details
Mandatory Fields
Reviews
Atkins, JF;O'Connor, KM;Bhatt, PR;Loughran, G
2021
July
From Recoding to Peptides for MHC Class I Immune Display: Enriching Viral Expression, Virus Vulnerability and Virus Evasion
Validated
1
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Optional Fields
MURINE-LEUKEMIA-VIRUS INFLUENZA-A VIRUS RIBOSOMAL FRAMESHIFTING SIGNAL GAG-TERMINATION CODON RNA-BINDING PROTEIN MESSENGER-RNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS READ-THROUGH TRANSCRIPTIONAL SLIPPAGE REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTASE
Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, utilize programmed ribosomal frameshifting and/or stop codon readthrough in their expression, and in the decoding of a few a UGA is dynamically redefined to specify selenocysteine. This recoding can effectively increase viral coding capacity and generate a set ratio of products with the same N-terminal domain(s) but different C-terminal domains. Recoding can also be regulatory or generate a product with the non-universal 21st directly encoded amino acid. Selection for translation speed in the expression of many viruses at the expense of fidelity creates host immune defensive opportunities. In contrast to host opportunism, certain viruses, including some persistent viruses, utilize recoding or adventitious frameshifting as part of their strategy to evade an immune response or specific drugs. Several instances of recoding in small intensively studied viruses escaped detection for many years and their identification resolved dilemmas. The fundamental importance of ribosome ratcheting is consistent with the initial strong view of invariant triplet decoding which however did not foresee the possibility of transitory anticodon:codon dissociation. Deep level dynamics and structural understanding of recoding is underway, and a high level structure relevant to the frameshifting required for expression of the SARS CoV-2 genome has just been determined.
BASEL
MDPI
1999-4915
10.3390/v13071251
Grant Details