Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Proficiency-Based Progression (PBP) operative training using validated performance metrics, by comparing this to standard, conventional training methods. Data: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Study quality was assessed using the MERSQI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results were pooled using biased corrected standardized mean difference and ratioof-means (ROM). Summary effects were evaluated using a series of fixed and random effects models. The primary outcome was the number of procedural errors performed comparing PBP and non-PBP-based training pathways. In quantitative synthesis testing for procedural errors, a pooled meta-analysis on 87 trainees was conducted using random-effects models. In a ROM analysis, PBP was estimated to reduce the mean rate of errors by 62%, when compared to standard training (ROM 0.38, 95% CI: 0.25; 0.58; p < 0.001) Sources: The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, MEDLINE and Cochrane library's CENTRAL were searched from inception to 8/11/2021. Filters activated were Randomized Controlled trials, clinical trial. Study selection: 13 studies were included for review with 11 included in the quantitative synthesis from 174 potentially relevant publications identified by the search strategy. Main inclusion criteria were studies comparing standard surgical/operative training with proficiency-based simulation training using validated metrics based on expert performance. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis found that PBP training improved trainees' performances, by decreasing procedural errors. There is sufficient evidence to explore PBP training for use in dental skills training. PBP training was estimated to reduce the mean rate of operative errors by 62%, when compared to standard training. Given that there is a direct correlation between operative skill and patient outcomes, these data suggest that there is sufficient evidence to explore PBP training for use in dental skills training.