Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been classified as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. CVD risk factors include smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, inflammation and diabetes. The gut microbiota can influence human health through multiple interactions and community changes are associated with the development and progression of numerous disease states, including CVD. The gut microbiota are involved in the production of several metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). These products of microbial metabolism are important modulatory factors and have been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Due to its association with CVD development, the gut microbiota has emerged as a target for therapeutic approaches. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in CVD development, and associated microbial communities, functions, and metabolic profiles. We also discuss CVD therapeutic interventions that target the gut microbiota such as probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation.