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Garcia-Gil, A.; Biswas, S.; Holmes, J. D.
Growth and analysis of the tetragonal (ST12) germanium nanowires
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Data from publication: Nanoscale 2022, 14 (5), 2030-2040
New semiconducting materials, such as state-of-the-art alloys, engineered composites and allotropes of well-established materials can demonstrate unique physical properties and generate wide possibilities for a vast range of applications. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the fabrication of a metastable allotrope of Ge, tetragonal germanium (ST12-Ge), in nanowire form. Nanowires were grown in a solvothermal-like single-pot method using supercritical toluene as a solvent, at moderate temperatures (290–330 °C) and a pressure of ∼48 bar. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ST12-Ge were achieved via a self-seeded vapour–liquid–solid (VLS)-like paradigm, with the aid of an in situ formed amorphous carbonaceous layer. The ST12 phase of Ge nanowires is governed by the formation of this carbonaceous structure on the surface of the nanowires and the creation of Ge–C bonds. The crystalline phase and structure of the ST12-Ge nanowires were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The nanowires produced displayed a high aspect ratio, with a very narrow mean diameter of 9.0 ± 1.4 nm, and lengths beyond 4 μm. The ST12-Ge nanowire allotrope was found to have a profound effect on the intensity of the light emission and the directness of the bandgap, as confirmed by a temperature-dependent photoluminescence study.
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