The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is vital for maintaining brain homeostasis by enabling an exquisite control of exchange of compounds between the blood and the brain parenchyma. Moreover, the BBB prevents unwanted toxins and pathogens from entering the brain. This barrier, however, breaks down with age and further disruption is a hallmark of many age-related disorders. Several drugs have been explored, thus far, to protect or restore BBB function. With the recent connection between the BBB and gut microbiota, microbial-derived metabolites have been explored for their capabilities to protect and restore BBB physiology. This review, will focus on the vital components that make up the BBB, dissect levels of disruption of the barrier, and discuss current drugs and therapeutics that maintain barrier integrity and the recent discoveries of effects microbial-derived metabolites have on BBB physiology.