The endosomal recycling pathway lies at the heart of the membrane trafficking machinery in the cell. It plays a central role in determining the composition of the plasma membrane and is thus critical for normal cellular homeostasis. However, defective endosomal recycling has been linked to a wide range of diseases, including cancer and some of the most common neurological disorders. It is also frequently subverted by many diverse human pathogens in order to successfully infect cells. Despite its importance, endosomal recycling remains relatively understudied in comparison to the endocytic and secretory transport pathways. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support transport through the endosomal recycling pathway will provide deeper insights into the pathophysiology of disease and will likely identify new approaches for their detection and treatment. This review will provide an overview of the normal physiological role of the endosomal recycling pathway, describe the consequences when it malfunctions, and discuss potential strategies for modulating its activity.