Cheese offers an attractive food-based delivery vehicle for probiotic cultures and biogenic substances such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and bioactive peptides. Compared to many other fermented foods it has a relatively high pH and fat content, a solid consistency and a higher buffering capacity. Together these features probably afford improved protection of biological activity during manufacture, storage and gastrointestinal transit. However, it is desirable that probiotics and biogenics are technologically compatible with the cheese manufacturing process. Therefore, some important characteristics of probiotic strains and biogenics need to be assessed when considering cheese as the delivery matrix. Additionally, it is important that the delivery and generation of bioactive materials in cheeses does not disturb the cheese ecosystem by interfering with cheese maturation and/or flavour development. To date, many probiotic cheeses have been made without changing the manufacturing process by using probiotics as adjuncts with the starter cultures. Additionally, spray-dried skim milk powders containing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures have been developed which can be added as direct vat inoculants for cheddar cheese manufacture. Moreover, cheese itself is recognised as a natural source of bioactive peptides which originate from the proteolytic action of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on milk proteins during cheese manufacture and/or maturation.