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Baker K;O'Donnell C;Bendix M;Keogh S;Byrne J;O'Riordain M;Neary P;Houston A;Brint E;
IL-36 signalling enhances a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in colon cancer cells with cancer cell growth restricted by administration of the IL-36R antagonist.
WOS: 2 ()
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The IL-36 cytokines are a recently described subset of the IL-1 family of cytokines, shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Given the link between IBD and colitis -associated cancer, as well as the involvement of other IL-1 family members in intestinal tumorigenesis, the aim of this work was to investigate whether IL-36 cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Whilst research to date has focused on the role of IL-36 family members in augmenting the immune response to induce tumour rejection, very little remains known about IL-36R signalling in tumour cells in this context. In this study we demonstrate that expression of IL-36 family member mRNA and protein are significantly increased in colorectal cancer tissue compared to adjacent non-tumour. In vitro assays showed stimulation of colon cancer cell lines with IL-36R agonists resulted in the activation of the pro-tumorigenic phenotypes of increased cellular migration, invasion and proliferation in both 2D and 3D models. In addition, the IL-36 cytokines induced strong expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines in both human and murine cell lines. Intraperitoneal injection of IL-36Ra significantly reduced tumour burden using the subcutaneous CT26 tumour model in syngeneic Balb/mice, and this was associated with a decrease in Ki-67 expression by tumour cells in the IL-36Ra- treated group relative to untreated, suggesting the inhibition of the pro-proliferative signalling of IL-36 agonists resulted in the decreased tumour size. Moreover, colon cancer cells lacking the IL-36R also showed reduced tumour growth and reduced Ki-67 expression in vivo. Taken together, this data suggests that targeting IL-36R signalling may be a useful targeted therapy for colorectal cancer patients with IL-36R+ tumour cells.
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