Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Thomas, S., King, R., Murphy, M. & Dempsey, M.
Dialogues in Health
Demographic factors associated with healthcare avoidance and delay in the transgender population: Findings from a systematic review
In Press
Optional Fields
Transgender, LGBTQIA, Healthcare avoidance and delay, Healthcare utilization, Patient engagement
Purpose Healthcare avoidance and delay (HAD) in the transgender population has been well documented, and research has explored a range of associated factors that help to identify those most at risk of HAD. This review addresses a gap in the research by synthesizing research exploring associations between HAD and demographic factors. Methods A systematic search of literature published at any time up to December 2021 was conducted, using five databases (EBSCO, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) and manually searching reference lists of included studies. After exclusion of duplicates, 608 unique records were subjected to double screening. Papers reporting statistical analyses of HAD in association with any sociodemographic variables were included in this review. Papers consisted of nineteen cross-sectional studies. Narrative synthesis was used to address findings. Results Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria, exploring HAD in association with a wide range of demographic factors, including sex and gender, social transition factors, age, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, veteran status, education, sexuality, relationship status, citizenship, place of residence, and state demographics. Findings identified intra-community demographic risk factors, with consistent evidence for increased HAD among transmasculine, and younger, participants. Lower income and higher educational attainment were also associated with increased HAD, while remaining areas had weak or little evidence for association with HAD. Conclusion This review expands knowledge in this area by highlighting demographic factors associated with increased HAD in research literature, and exploring how these may be further investigated to address substantial gaps in the body of research.
Grant Details
Irish Research Council