Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, and as life expectancy and the world's population continue to increase will become even more important. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop and implement nutritional approaches and policies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Patients with some chronic inflammatory diseases appear to be more likely to develop osteopenia, and in some cases earlier in life, which is of particular concern as the incidence of inflammatory diseases in the Western world is increasing. While the cause of bone loss in patients with inflammatory disease is multifactorial, nutrition may have a role. Many of these patients may have one or more nutritional deficiencies, which can lead to altered rates of bone metabolism. On the other hand, some nutritional factors may attenuate the inflammatory process itself, and thus may indirectly benefit bone metabolism and bone health in patients with inflammatory disease. The present review will consider these issues, particularly in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and atherosclerosis.