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Doonan, F, Wallace, DM, O'Driscoll, C, Cotter, TG;
Journal of Neurochemistry
Rosiglitazone Acts As A Neuroprotectant In Retinal Cells Via Up-Regulation of Sestrin-1 and Sod-2
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Rosiglitazone is a member of the thiazolidinedione family of synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. It is a selective ligand of the PPAR gamma subtype and functions by regulating the transcription of insulin-responsive genes. A screen of FDA-approved compounds identified rosiglitazone as a novel anti-apoptotic agent in retinal cells both in vitro and in vivo, functioning as a neuroprotectant in response to oxidative and calcium stress. We have found that the likely mechanism of action is via increased protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) and sestrin-1, boosting antioxidant defences. Transcription of both genes appears to be mediated by PPAR gamma as their up-regulation is reversed by the PPAR gamma antagonist GW9662 and proliferator hormone response elements were found in the putative promoter regions of mouse SOD-2 and sestrin-1. However, further investigation revealed that p53 expression was also induced in response to rosiglitazone and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm that it is a bona fide target of PPAR gamma. Furthermore, inhibition of p53 partially blocks the observed increase in SOD-2 and sestrin-1 expression indicating that p53 expression is upstream of both antioxidants. We conclude that rosiglitazone may increase cell survival in retinal diseases and potentially other neuronal diseases in which oxidative stress is a key factor..
DOI 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05995.x
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