Classically, very few pre-treatments are applied to milk for cheese-making, with some cheese varieties simply made from raw whole milk, but most made from pasteurised milk of which the composition ( e. g., fat: protein ratio) may have been standardized. However, there has been consistent interest in more novel and sophisticated strategies for pre-treatment of cheese-milk. Approaches explored include the use of alternative processing technologies ( e. g., membrane filtration, high-pressure treatment, homogenisation, heat treatments more severe than pasteurisation) or addition of sources of protein or milk solids ( e. g., milk powders, whey protein products) or enzymes. The principal reasons for such pre-treatments of cheese-milk are: ( 1) to control the microbiology of the raw milk and the resulting cheese better than is possible by pasteurisation ( e. g., inactivation or removal of spores, control of non-starter lactic acid bacteria); ( 2) increasing the yield of cheese, e. g., through heat- or pressure-induced incorporation of whey proteins, or enhancing sensory properties of reduced fat cheese by direct addition of microparticulated whey proteins; ( 3) manipulation of cheese ripening, e. g., reducing the likelihood of off-flavour development by inactivation of enzymes or accelerating ripening through increasing enzyme-substrate interactions; or ( 4) improving the texture and other functional properties, e. g., melting. Finally, the considerations for manufacture and ripening of different cheese varieties, or sub-classes of specific varieties ( e. g., low-fat cheese) will clearly differ and add to the complexity of the technological options available. This article will review the key principles for pre-treatment of cheese-milk, as summarised briefly above..