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Pehkonen, KS, Roos, YH, Miao, S, Ross, RP, Stanton, C;
Journal of Applied Microbiology
State Transitions and Physicochemical Aspects of Cryoprotection and Stabilization In Freeze-Drying of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Gg (Lgg)
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Aims: The frozen and dehydrated state transitions of lactose and trehalose were determined and studied as factors affecting the stability of probiotic bacteria to understand physicochemical aspects of protection against freezing and dehydration of probiotic cultures.. Methods and Results: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was frozen (-22 or -43 degrees C), freeze-dried and stored under controlled water vapour pressure (0%, 11%, 23% and 33% relative vapour pressure) conditions. Lactose, trehalose and their mixture (1 : 1) were used as protective media. These systems were confirmed to exhibit relatively similar state transition and water plasticization behaviour in freeze-concentrated and dehydrated states as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Ice formation and dehydrated materials were studied using cold-stage microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Trehalose and lactose-trehalose gave the most effective protection of cell viability as observed from colony forming units after freezing, dehydration and storage. Enhanced cell viability was observed when the freezing temperature was -43 degrees C.. Conclusions: State transitions of protective media affect ice formation and cell viability in freeze-drying and storage. Formation of a maximally freeze-concentrated matrix with entrapped microbial cells is essential in freezing prior to freeze-drying. Freeze-drying must retain a solid amorphous state of protectant matrices. Freeze-dried matrices contain cells entrapped in the protective matrices in the freezing process. The retention of viability during storage seems to be controlled by water plasticization of the protectant matrix and possibly interactions of water with the dehydrated cells. Highest cell viability was obtained in glassy protective media.. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that physicochemical properties of protective media affect the stability of dehydrated cultures. Trehalose and lactose may be used in combination, which is particularly important for the stabilization of probiotic bacteria in dairy systems..
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03719.x
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