Background. Intra-abdominal sepsis causes exuberant inflammation, which results in dense adhesions. Translocation of enteric bacteria and/or their antigens after laparotomy may therefore also affect peritoneal healing by promoting local release of proinflammatory cytokines. Our hypothesis was that targeted counter therapy could be beneficial if such. contamination was to augment postoperative adhesion formation..
Methods. Two endotoxin-hyposensitive mouse strains (C3H/Hej and C57BL/10ScCr) and their syngeneic counterparts (C3H/HeN and C57BL10/ScSn, respectively) underwent reproducible adhesion inducing operation (AIO) (n = 10/group) with sacrifice and blinded adhesion grading 14 days later. In addition, CD-1 mice were gavaged with fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled-lipopolysaccharide (FITC-LPS) prior to either AIO or sham laparotomy and had both peritoneal macrophages and circulating monocytes assessed by flow cytometry afterward. The cytokine-release response of resident peritoneal cells to LPS stimulation was assessed in vitro (murine peritoneal mast cell cultures) and in vivo (unoperated CD-1 mice administered LPS introperitoneally [10 & 50 mu g/mouse]). Finally, CD-1 mice (n = 10/group) had AIO and received either bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (rBPI, 2 mg/mouse) or vehicle solution in the early postoperative period with assessment of adhesion formation 2 weeks later..
Results. Both HeJ and ScCr mice had less adhesions than their controls (P =.0015 and. 0001, respectively, Mann Whitney U test). FITC-LPS uptake by peritoneal macrophages was striking after AIO. Intraperitoneal LPS provoked significant local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release as did the Process of AIO. In vitro, LPS induced significant interleukin-(IL)-6 release from isolated mast cells. Intraperitoneal administration of rBPI to CD-I mice early after AIO markedly attenuated subsequent adhesion formation (P =.0003)..
Conclusions. Peritoneal adhesion formation is exacerbated by peritoneal contamination due to translocation after laparotomy and may be attenuated by therapeutic antagonism..