We analyse the evolution of X chromosome-linked imprinting by modifying our previous model of imprinting of autosomal genes that influence the trade-off between maternal fecundity and offspring viability through alterations in maternal investment (Mills and Moore, 2004). Unlike previous genetic models, we analyse X-linked imprinting in the context of populations at equilibrium for either autosomal or X-linked biallelically expressed alleles at loci that influence the fecundity/viability trade-off. We show that selection under parental conflict over maternal investment in offspring can parsimoniously explain the occurrence of sex-specific gene expression patterns, without a requirement to postulate direct selection for sexual dimorphism mediated through imprinting. We note that sex chromosome imprinting causes a small distortion of the post-weaning sex ratio, providing a possible selection pressure against the evolution of X-linked imprints. We discuss our conclusions in the context of recent reports of imprinting of mouse X-linked Xlr genes.