Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
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Bourke, M. G.,Salwa, S.,Harrington, K. J.,Kucharczyk, M. J.,Forde, P. F.,de Kruijf, M.,Soden, D.,Tangney, M.,Collins, J. K.,O'Sullivan, G. C.;
2011
January
The emerging role of viruses in the treatment of solid tumours
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There is increasing optimism for the use of non-pathogenic viruses in the treatment of many cancers. Initial interest in oncolytic virotherapy was based on the observation of an occasional clinical resolution of a lymphoma after a systemic viral infection. In many cancers, by comparison with normal tissues, the competency of the cellular anti-viral mechanism is impaired, thus creating an exploitable difference between the tumour and normal cells, as an unimpeded viral proliferation in cancer cells is eventually cytocidal. In addition to their oncolytic capability, these particular viruses may be engineered to facilitate gene delivery to tumour cells to produce therapeutic effects such as cytokine secretion and anti -tumour immune responses prior to the eventual cytolysis. There is now promising clinical experience with these viral strategies, particularly as part of multimodal studies, and already several clinical trials are in progress. The limitations of standard cancer chemotherapies, including their lack of specificity with consequent collateral toxicity and the development of cross-resistance, do not appear to apply to viral-based therapies. Furthermore, virotherapy frequently restores chemoradiosensitivity to resistant tumours and has also demonstrated efficacy against cancers that historically have a dismal prognosis. While there is cause for optimism, through continued improvements in the efficiency and safety of systemic delivery, through the emergence of alternative viral agents and through favourable clinical experiences, clinical trials as part of multimodal protocols will be necessary to define clinical utility. Significant progress has been made and this is now a major research area with an increasing annual bibliography.There is increasing optimism for the use of non-pathogenic viruses in the treatment of many cancers. Initial interest in oncolytic virotherapy was based on the observation of an occasional clinical resolution of a lymphoma after a systemic viral infection. In many cancers, by comparison with normal tissues, the competency of the cellular anti-viral mechanism is impaired, thus creating an exploitable difference between the tumour and normal cells, as an unimpeded viral proliferation in cancer cells is eventually cytocidal. In addition to their oncolytic capability, these particular viruses may be engineered to facilitate gene delivery to tumour cells to produce therapeutic effects such as cytokine secretion and anti -tumour immune responses prior to the eventual cytolysis. There is now promising clinical experience with these viral strategies, particularly as part of multimodal studies, and already several clinical trials are in progress. The limitations of standard cancer chemotherapies, including their lack of specificity with consequent collateral toxicity and the development of cross-resistance, do not appear to apply to viral-based therapies. Furthermore, virotherapy frequently restores chemoradiosensitivity to resistant tumours and has also demonstrated efficacy against cancers that historically have a dismal prognosis. While there is cause for optimism, through continued improvements in the efficiency and safety of systemic delivery, through the emergence of alternative viral agents and through favourable clinical experiences, clinical trials as part of multimodal protocols will be necessary to define clinical utility. Significant progress has been made and this is now a major research area with an increasing annual bibliography.
1532-1967 (Electronic) 03
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21232872http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21232872
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